Corn: U.S. corn for grain production is estimated at 12.4 billion bushels, down 1 percent from the November 1 forecast and 5 percent below the record high production of 13.1 billion bushels set in 2009. U.S. grain yield for 2010 is estimated at 152.8 bushels per acre. This is down 1.5 bushels from the November forecast and 11.9 bushels below the record high yield of 164.7 bushels per acre set in 2009.
Regionally, estimated yields are down across much of the Corn Belt, Central Great Plains, Ohio Valley, and Mid-Atlantic States compared to 2009. Less than ideal soil conditions and above normal temperatures during the latter part of summer limited yield potential in these areas. Estimated yields are up from last year in the Southern Great Plains, Mississippi Delta, and Southeast. Improved weather and favorable harvesting conditions were the main reasons for the increase in yield. Yields were also up in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi Valley, with record high yields estimated in Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin.
Corn planted area, at 88.2 million acres, is up 2 percent from 2009. This represents the second largest acreage since 1946, only behind 2007 with 93.5 million acres. Area harvested for grain is estimated at 81.4 million acres, up slightly from the November forecast and up 2 percent from 2009.
The 2010 corn objective yield data indicate the second highest number of ears per acre for the combined 10 objective yield States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin), only behind the record year of 2009. Record high ear counts were recorded in Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
Corn silage production is estimated at 107 million tons in 2010, down 1 percent from 2009. The U.S. silage yield is estimated at a record high 19.3 tons per acre, tying the previous record set in 2009. Acreage harvested for silage is estimated at 5.57 million acres, down 1 percent from a year ago.
Planting got off to a rapid start in 2010 due to favorable conditions across much of the major corn-producing region during the middle of April. By April 25, half of the Nation's corn acreage had been planted, the earliest date on record that planting had progressed to the midpoint. At 50 percent complete, planting progress was 30 percentage points ahead of the 2009 pace and 28 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average pace. Planting progress was over 40 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average at this point in time in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota, four of the five largest corn-producing States. The end of April brought widespread frost to parts of the Midwest, but damage was minimal due to the fact that only a small amount of the crop had emerged.
Favorable planting conditions carried over into the first part of May, with 81 percent of the intended corn acreage planted as of May 9. This represented the third quickest planting pace on record, behind only 2004 and 2000, respectively. However, below average temperatures and wet weather dominated much of the Midwest and portions of the Plains during the middle part of May, hampering the planting of the remaining acreage and threatening emerged plants. Producers continued to battle wet field conditions during the latter part of May but were able to plant an additional 10 percent during the final two weeks of the month bringing the overall total to 97 percent. This was slightly ahead of the 5-year average pace of 96 percent.
Above average temperatures and adequate soil moisture levels in late June and early July pushed silking progress ahead of the normal pace in many parts of the country. By July 4, nineteen percent of the Nation's corn crop was at or beyond the silking stage, 11 percentage points ahead of the previous year's pace and 7 percentage points ahead of the five year average.
As of August 1, seventy-one percent of the corn acreage was rated in good to excellent condition in the 18 major producing States, up 3 percentage points from the previous year. Regionally, conditions were better than last year in the central and southern Great Plains, upper Great Lakes, and upper Mississippi Valley. Moderate temperatures and adequate soil moisture provided favorable growing conditions in these areas. Crop conditions were worse than a year ago in the Corn Belt States of Iowa and South Dakota mainly due to excessive soil moisture. Conditions were also worse in the Tennessee
Valley and Mid-Atlantic regions due to above normal temperatures and dry conditions.
Condition ratings declined during August throughout much of the central and western Corn Belt, as well as the Tennessee Valley, mainly due to above normal temperatures and less than ideal soil conditions. The above normal temperatures during the first part of August promoted rapid phenological development. By September 5, virtually all of the Nation's corn acreage was at or beyond the dough stage, with 86 percent dented or beyond, 15 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average. Harvest was underway in 11of the 18 major estimating States at this time.
Harvesting activities were in full swing during the month of October. Virtually the entire crop had reached the mature stage of development by October 10, twenty-six percentage points ahead of 2009 and 9 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average. As of October 31, ninety-one percent of the corn acreage was harvested, 67 percentage points ahead of last year, and 30 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average. Harvest was ahead of the
normal pace in all 18 major producing States, with Illinois, Indiana, and Kansas all having less than 5 percent of the crop remaining in the field. Harvest was complete in Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee by month's end.
Sorghum: Grain production in 2010 is estimated at 345 million bushels, up 2 percent from the November 1 forecast but 10 percent below 2009. Planted area is estimated at 5.40 million acres, down 19 percent from last year, and the lowest planted area on record. Area harvested for grain, at 4.81 million acres, is down 13 percent from 2009, and the lowest harvested area since 1939. Average grain yield, at 71.8 bushels per acre, is down 0.7 bushel from the previous forecast but up 2.4 bushels from last year. Record low planted acreages were established in Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas, while record high grain yields were set in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
Silage production is estimated at 3.42 million tons, down 7 percent from 2009. Area cut for silage is estimated at 273,000 acres, up 7 percent from the previous year. Silage yields averaged 12.5 tons per acre, down 2.0 tons per acre from 2009. While Texas continued to harvest most of the United States' silage production, Kansas led the Nation in area planted for all purposes, as well as area harvested for grain and grain production. Planted acreage decreased in nine of the 14 estimating States, with reductions of
13 and 30 percent, in Kansas and Texas, the two largest sorghum-producing States, respectively.
Planting was underway in all major estimating States except Nebraska and South Dakota by the end of April. Wet fields in portions of Kansas and Texas slowed fieldwork during May, leaving progress slightly behind normal. Crop maturation continued at a near-normal pace throughout the summer, with harvest underway in limited areas by early July. By November 21, producers had harvested 95 percent of the 2010 sorghum crop, 22 percentage points ahead of last year and 8 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average.
Oats: The 2010 production is estimated at 81.2 million bushels, down 13 percent from last year and is a record low production. Yield is estimated at 64.3 bushels per acre, down 3.2 bushels from the previous year. Area planted to oats is estimated at a record low 3.14 million acres, down 8 percent from 2009. The largest decline occurred in North Dakota, where planted area decreased 70,000 acres from last year and is a record low for
that State. In total, record lows for planted acres were set in 12 States. Harvested area is estimated at a record low 1.26 million acres, 8 percent below last year. The largest decline occurred in North Dakota, where area harvested for grain decreased 60,000 acres from last year and is also a record low for that State. Record lows for harvested area occurred in 10 States.
In California, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, excessively wet weather hindered the crop, with the average yield in these States declining 10 bushels from last year. In Idaho, favorable growing conditions led to a 6 bushel increase in yield from last year and is a record high yield for the State. Yield increases of 5 bushels per acre occurred in Michigan, Montana, and Texas.
During early spring, planting of the oat crop was ahead of the normal pace. By April 25, growers had planted 75 percent of the acreage, 15 points ahead of normal. During April, emergence also was ahead of the normal pace. By April 25, emergence was 49 percent complete, 13 points ahead of the 5-year average. As of May 30, planting was complete, with the crop 93 percent emerged, 1 point behind the normal pace. Through June, crop development was ahead of normal in most major oat-producing States. As of June 27,
seventy-four percent of the oat acreage was headed, 3 points ahead of the 5-year average. However, North Dakota, the third largest oat-producing State, lagged 15 percentage points behind the 5-year average.
By August 1, forty-seven percent of the oat acreage was harvested, 3 points ahead of the normal pace. Also at this time, harvest in Texas was nearly complete at 97 percent with Ohio following closely behind at 96 percent. In North Dakota, harvest had just begun at 4 percent, and was 13 points behind normal. By August 29, harvest was 96 percent complete in the nine major producing States, 2 points ahead of the 5-year average.
Barley: Production is estimated at 182 million bushels, down 1 percent from the August 1 forecast and 20 percent below 2009. Average yield per acre, at 73.6 bushels, is up 1.3 bushels from August and 0.6 bushel from last year and is the highest yield on record since estimates began in 1866. Producers seeded 2.87 million acres in 2010, down 19 percent from last year. This is the lowest planted acreage on record. Harvested area, at 2.47 million acres, is down 3 percent from the August 1 forecast and down 21 percent from 2009, and the lowest level since 1882. Barley seedings decreased in Idaho,
Montana, and North Dakota, the three largest barley-producing States. Producers in North Dakota seeded 720,000 acres and harvested 675,000 acres, both down 40 percent from the previous year. Seeded area in North Dakota establishes a record low for the State, while harvested area is the lowest since 1936. In addition, Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota producers set new record lows for seeded acreage. A record low for harvested area was set in South Dakota and tied in Michigan. Conversely, record high yields were set in Arizona, Montana, and Utah.
Barley seeding was well underway across much of the major producing regions by April 18, when 18 percent of the Nation's crop was in the ground. Above average temperatures and mostly dry weather during February and March promoted an early start to seeding in Washington, while cool, wet conditions and late-spring snow hampered fieldwork in Idaho. By May 30, ninety-six percent of the 2010 crop had been seeded, with overall progress at or ahead of normal in all five of the major estimating States except Montana. By June 13, emergence was complete or nearly complete in the five major estimating States. Although mostly warm temperatures in early July promoted rapid head development across much of the major barley-producing areas, overall progress in Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota remained behind normal following slow crop development earlier in the growing season. Harvest was underway in most States by the end of July, and had advanced to 91 percent complete by September 26, behind both last year and the 5-year average. As harvest surpassed the halfway point during the week ending August 22, eighty-four percent of the barley crop was reported in good to excellent condition, compared with 80 percent from the same time last year.
All Wheat: Production totaled 2.21 billion bushels in 2010, down less than 1 percent from 2009. Grain area is 47.6 million acres, down 5 percent from last year. The U.S. yield is a record high 46.4 bushels per acre, 1.9 bushels higher than 2009 and 1.5 bushels higher than the previous record set in 2008. The levels of production and changes from last year by type are winter wheat, 1.49 billion bushels, down 3 percent; other spring wheat, 616 million bushels, up 5 percent; Durum wheat, 107 million bushels, down 2 percent.
Winter Wheat: The 2010 winter wheat production totaled 1.49 billion bushels, 3 percent below last year. The U.S. yield is 46.8 bushels per acre, up 2.6 bushels from the previous year and the fourth highest on record. Area harvested for grain is estimated at 31.7 million acres, down 8 percent from the previous year.
Planted acres were down from 2009 in many of the major Hard Red Winter growing States. While harvested acres were down from last year in most of the major growing States, ideal weather conditions in Oklahoma and Texas resulted in an increase of 1.70 million harvested acres from 2009 in those two States. Record high yields occurred in Colorado, Montana, Nevada, and North Dakota. Overall, Hard Red Winter production totaled 1.02 billion bushels, up 11 percent from 2009.
Planted and harvested acres decreased from a year ago across all of the Soft Red Winter growing area due to the late row crop harvest and wet weather during seeding. Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Ohio set record lows for planted acres. Production was down from last year in all of the Soft Red Winter growing States. Production was down 50 percent or more from 2009 in Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. Overall, Soft Red Winter production totaled 238 million bushels, down 41 percent from last year.
White winter production totaled 229 million bushels, up 14 percent from last year. Planted and harvested acreage in the Pacific Northwest States (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) was above last year's levels. Yields were also up from last year in all three States.
Other Spring Wheat: Production for 2010 is estimated at 616 million bushels, up 5 percent from 2009 and the third highest total on record. Harvested area is 13.4 million acres, up 3 percent from last year. The United States yield is a record high 46.1 bushels per acre, 1.0 bushel higher than last year which was the previous record. Yields are above last year's level in all States except North Dakota and South Dakota. Average yield in North Dakota, the largest spring wheat-producing State, was 44.0 bushels per acre, 2.0 bushels lower than 2009 but still the second highest on record. Record high yields were set in Colorado, Montana, and Oregon.
Planting got off to a good start in many of the major spring wheat-producing States. Progress of the crop was ahead of last year, but lagged behind the 5-year average due to cooler temperatures. The growing season was marked by below normal temperatures and adequate moisture. Crop maturation continued behind normal throughout the growing season. As a result, harvest progress lagged behind the normal in most States in the growing area. Minnesota and South Dakota were the only States where harvest progressed ahead of the 5-year average.
Durum Wheat: Production for 2010 is estimated at 107 million bushels, down 2 percent from 2009. Grain area harvested is 2.53 million acres, up 4 percent from the previous year. The United States yield is 42.4 bushels per acre, 2.5 bushels lower than the record yield set last year but still the second highest yield on record. Record yields occurred in Arizona, California, Montana, and South Dakota. North Dakota's yield of 37.5 bushels
per acre is 1.5 bushels lower than last year but still the third highest yield on record. Harvest progress in Montana and North Dakota was behind normal.
Rice: Production in 2010 is estimated at a record high 243 million cwt, up 1 percent from the previous forecast and up 11 percent from 2009. Planted area is estimated at 3.64 million acres, up 16 percent from 2009. Area harvested, at 3.62 million acres, is down slightly from the previous forecast but up 17 percent from the previous crop year. The average yield for all U.S. rice is estimated at 6,725 pounds per acre, up 56 pounds from the previous forecast but 360 pounds below the 2009 yield.
Planted area is up from 2009 in all rice-producing States except California. Growers in Arkansas, the largest rice-producing State, planted a record 1.79 million acres in 2010, up 21 percent from the previous year. Area planted in Missouri, at 253,000 acres is also a record high. In California, the second largest rice-producing State, planted area is down 1 percent from last year and totaled 558,000 acres.
Planting got off to a rapid start this season in many of the southern States due to favorable weather conditions. However, in California, wet field conditions and spring rainstorms delayed planting. Warm temperatures throughout the growing season across much of the southern rice-producing areas pushed crop development and harvest ahead of normal, but the high temperatures resulted in lower than expected yields in many States. Harvest trailed well behind normal in California, where cool temperatures and wet conditions throughout much of the season limited crop growth and delayed field work. Favorable weather conditions in September allowed harvest to begin but wet field conditions at the end of the harvest season affected the harvest progress and yields of late maturing varieties.
Long grain rice yielded 6,486 pounds per acre across the Nation with production at 183 million cwt. Medium grain rice yielded 7,660 pounds per acre in 2010 with production at 57.1 million cwt. Short grain rice yielded 6,195 pounds per acre with production at 2.66 million cwt.
All Hay: Production of dry hay for 2010 is estimated at 146 million tons, down 4 percent from the October 1 forecast and down 1 percent from the 2009 total. Area harvested is at 59.9 million acres, up slightly from both the October 1 forecast and from last year. The average yield, at 2.43 tons per acre, is down 0.12 ton from October and down 0.04 ton from the previous year.
Forage: Eighteen States participate in the forage estimation program, which measures annual production of forage crops, with an emphasis on total alfalfa production. Haylage and greenchop production is converted to 13 percent moisture and combined with dry hay production to derive the total forage production. The total 2010 all haylage and greenchop production for the 18 States in the forage program is 33.8 million tons, of which 23.1 million tons are from alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures. The total all haylage production is up 7 percent from last year. Wisconsin, the leading haylage and greenchop
producing State, harvested 1.40 million acres of all haylage and greenchop in
2010, of which 1.30 million were alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures, both down 100,000 acres from last year. The 18 State total forage area harvested is 35.7 million acres, including 14.5 million acres from alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures. The total forage harvested area is 71,000 acres lower than 2009 but the total forage production is up slightly from last year. The United States yield is estimated at 2.81 tons per acre, up 0.02 ton from the previous year.
New Seedings of Alfalfa and Alfalfa Mixtures: Growers seeded 2.55 million acres of alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures during 2010, down 5 percent from the 2009 seeded area of 2.67 million acres. The largest decrease occurred in Oklahoma, down 30,000 acres from 2009 while the largest increase was in Montana with an additional 25,000 acres. The new seedings of alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures will normally be harvested for the first time in the year following planting.
Canola: Production in 2010 is estimated at a record high 2.45 billion pounds, up 66 percent from 2009 but down 3 percent from the October 1 forecast. The yield, at 1,713 pounds per acre, is down 98 pounds from last year's record high yield and down 73 pounds from October. Planted area is estimated at 1.45 million acres, 75 percent above last year's acreage. Harvested area, at 1.43 million acres, is up 76 percent from 2009.
Production in North Dakota, the leading canola-producing State, is estimated at a record high 2.18 billion pounds, up 64 percent from last year. Although the yield in North Dakota is down 120 pounds from last year, planted area is up 75 percent.
Soybeans: Production in 2010 totaled 3.33 billion bushels, down 1 percent from the November 1 forecast and down 1 percent from 2009. U.S. production is the second largest on record. The average yield per acre is estimated at 43.5 bushels, 0.4 bushel below the November forecast and 0.5 bushel below last year's record high yield. Planted area for the Nation, at 77.4 million acres, is down fractionally from last year's record high. Soybean growers harvested a record 76.6 million acres, up slightly from last year but down less than 1 percent from November.
Yields are down or unchanged from last year in all States except Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and the northern tier States. Hot, dry weather during the blooming stage and throughout pod development negatively impacted soybean yields in many areas. Compared with last year, the largest yield decrease occurred in New Jersey, down 18 bushels, and decreases of 10 bushels or more occurred in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Meanwhile, the biggest increase from last year occurred in Wisconsin, where yields are up 10.5 bushels from 2009. Yield increases of 5 bushels or more from last year also occurred in Illinois, Minnesota, New York, and Texas. New record high yields were set in Illinois, New York, and Wisconsin.
The 2010 soybean objective yield survey data indicate that final average pod counts were higher than last year in 7 of the 11 objective yield States. Compared with last year, pod counts were up more than 15 percent in Indiana and Ohio and more than 20 percent in Illinois and Minnesota. The only States that showed a decrease in pod counts from last year were Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and South Dakota.
Soybean planting got off to a good start this season as conditions were much improved compared with last year. The month of May began with planting in all States at or ahead of last year's pace and, with the exception of Louisiana, at or ahead of their 5-year average. During mid-May, several soybean-growing areas received cool, wet weather, but significant progress was made in many areas during the last week of May. As of May 30, planting progress had reached 74 percent complete, only one point behind normal, but
11 percentage points ahead of last year. During June, there were several heavy storms that moved through soybean-growing areas, slowing planting progress. Rainfall was particularly heavy at times in parts of the Central and Southern Great Plains, and the western Corn Belt. By June 27, ninety-seven percent of the soybean crop was planted, 2 points ahead of last year but equal to the 5-year average.
Emergence of the soybean crop began ahead of both normal and last year's pace, and remained very close to normal and a few points ahead of last year's pace throughout June. Soybeans reached 97 percent emerged by July 4, equal to the 5-year average but 2 points ahead of last year. Blooming progress for soybeans during July followed a very similar pattern to emergence progress, remaining several points ahead of last year but in line with the normal pace. As of August 1, eighty-six percent of the Nation's crop was blooming,
3 points ahead of normal and 12 points ahead of last year. Fifty-three percent of the acreage was setting pods by August 1, five points ahead of normal and 20 points ahead of last year.
Soybean development continued to stay ahead of normal during the month of August. By August 29, ninety-six percent of the soybean crop was at or beyond the pod-setting stage, four points ahead of last year and 1 point ahead of normal. Of the States where progress was lagging behind normal, the only State that was more than a point behind the 5-year average at the end of August was Kansas, which lagged behind the normal pace by 5 percentage points.
During September, crop conditions declined or remained unchanged in all of the major-producing States except Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, and Nebraska. The largest decline occurred in North Carolina, down 30 percentage points from last month, as hot, dry weather during most of September was followed by excessive rain at the end of the month. As of October 3, eighty-eight percent of acreage was dropping leaves or beyond, 11 points ahead of last year's pace and 3 points ahead of the 5-year average. Progress was ahead of normal in all major-producing States except Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and North Dakota. The percent of acreage dropping leaves was more than 10 points ahead of normal in Kentucky and Michigan.
Soybean harvest in the 18 major States was 37 percent complete at the beginning of October, 23 points ahead of last year's pace and 9 points ahead of normal. Mostly dry weather across most of the soybean-producing areas during the first two weeks of October further accelerated harvest progress. By October 17, eighty-three percent of soybeans were harvested, 54 percentage points higher than last year and 21 points ahead of the 5-year average. Although a few showers occurred in parts of the Midwest during the latter part of October which briefly slowed harvest, progress reached 96 percent complete by October 31, seventeen percentage points ahead of normal. This is the earliest date that 96 percent of the crop was harvested since 1975 when published data became available.
Cotton: Upland cotton production is estimated at 17.8 million 480-pound bales, up slightly from the December 1 forecast and up 51 percent from last year. The U.S. yield for Upland cotton is estimated at 814 pounds per acre, up 7 pounds from last month and up 48 pounds from 2009. Harvested area, at 10.5 million acres, is down 1 percent from last month but up 42 percent from last year. Upland planted area, estimated at 10.8 million acres, is up 20 percent from last year.
Upland growers in the Southeastern region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia) finished planting by mid-June. Hot, dry weather during much of the summer allowed the crop to develop ahead of normal. By the end of August, limited harvest was underway in Alabama and Georgia. By late-September, defoliation and harvest were underway throughout the region. Harvest neared completion by the end of November. Objective yield data in Georgia show bolls per acre to be the lowest in the last 7 years and boll weight to be at its lowest level since 1998. North Carolina boll weights are at their lowest level since 2005.
In the Delta region (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee) producers finished planting by the first of June. The crop developed quickly due to hot, dry conditions for much of the summer. Defoliation and harvest had begun by late-August in the region. Harvest was completed by mid-November. In Louisiana, objective yield data show boll weight to be the lightest in over 10 years. Objective yield data in Arkansas show the bolls per acre to be the largest on record in Arkansas and the largest in the last 5 years in Mississippi.
Texas producers finished planting Upland cotton by the middle of June. In the Panhandle, warm temperatures and timely rains allowed the crop to develop well ahead of normal. Defoliation and limited harvest was underway by the middle of September. In South Texas, harvest was complete by mid-September. Harvest progressed rapidly in the Panhandle of Texas through the first half of October. However, harvest came to a halt after strong thunderstorms moved through some parts of the growing area. Reports from growers indicated some damage to the crop due to heavy rain, hail, and high winds. Objective yield data in Texas show boll weight to be the lowest since 2005.
In Kansas and Oklahoma, the Upland crop developed ahead of normal during the growing season. In Oklahoma, harvest got underway in late September, while Kansas producers began harvesting in October.
Upland producers in California and Arizona completed planting by mid-June. The Upland crop developed behind normal throughout the summer. In Arizona, harvest began during the first week of September. In California, harvest got underway in October.
American Pima producers planted 204,200 acres, up 44 percent from last year. Harvested area, at 201,700 acres, is up 46 percent from last year. Production is estimated at 497,500 bales (480-pound), down slightly from the August 1 forecast but up 24 percent from last year. The U.S. yield is estimated at 1,184 pounds per acre, up 30 pounds from the August 1 forecast but down 205 pounds from last year.
All cotton ginnings totaled 16,447,200 running bales prior to January 1, compared with 10,812,000 running bales prior to the same date last year.