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Possible Corn Revenues and Returns for 2014

July 18, 2014
corn harvest IL 2011
  
 
 

By Gary Schnitkey, University of Illinois

The U.S. Department of Agriculture released a revised World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report on July 11, 2014. In this report, the 2014 Market Year Average (MYA) price for corn is projected to fall between $3.65 per bushel and $4.35 per bushel. Revenues and farmer returns are estimated for prices in this range given an average and high yield. Crop insurance and commodity title payments are included in estimates. Given this price range, there is about a $100 per acre range in which per acre returns can fall. Farmer returns likely are negative for cash rented farmland, given that costs are near average. Farmer returns for share rented farmland likely will be low.

Price and Yield Scenarios

Returns from an acre of corn production are calculated for three price scenarios:

  • The low price in the WASDE range for the 2014 marketing year: $3.65 per bushel
  • The mid price in the range: $4.00 per bushel.
  • The high price in the range: $4.35 per bushel.
     

For each Market Year Average (MYA) price, a harvest price is needed so that crop insurance payments can be calculated. Based on the average difference from 1972 through 2013, the harvest price is set $.10 per bushel lower than the MYA price. There is variability in the relationship between the harvest price and the MYA price over time, with extremes occurring in 1974 (harvest price was $.78 above the MYA price) and 2007 (the MYA price was $.62 above the harvest price). As a result of this variability, there can be variations in the relationship between crop revenue and crop insurance payments from those shown in this article.

Two yield scenarios are presented. The first is 197 bushels per acre, representing the average yield for central Illinois farmland with high productivity. Returns also are estimated for a high yield of 220 bushels per acre. These yields are selected based on expectations of above average yields for 2014. Similar to all years, yield experiences in 2014 will range across farms, with some farms having yields above 220 bushels per acre and some farms having below average yields. Generally, lower yield scenarios will result in lower returns and higher yield scenarios will result in higher returns, given the same price and costs.

Revenue

Revenues from crop revenue, insurance payments, and Agricultural Risk Coverage (ARC) are included in return calculations (see Table 1). Crop revenue equals the MYA price times the yield. For a $3.65 MYA price and a 197 bushel yield, crop revenue is $719 per acre (see Table 1). Across the price and yield scenarios, the lowest crop revenue is $719 per acre at the $3.65 MYA price and 197 bushel per acre yield. The highest revenue is $957 per acre with a $4.35 MYA price and a 220 bushel per acre yield.

table1 071614

Crop insurance payments are estimated for a Revenue Protection policy at the 85% coverage level. The guarantee yield is 195 bushels per acre and the projected price is the 2014 price of $4.62 per bushel. For a 197 bushel yield, crop insurance payments are $67 per acre at the $3.55 harvest price (see Table 1). No other crop insurance payments occur in the scenarios shown in Table 1.

Agricultural Risk Coverage (ARC) is a county revenue program for receiving commodity title payments contained in the 2014 Farm Bill. ARC payments are calculated using a McLean County situation given a 177 bushel per acre county yield when the farm has a 197 bushel yield, and a 200 bushel county yield when the farm has a 220 bushel yield. For the average yield scenario, ARC payments are estimated at $77 per acre at a $3.65 MYA price, $62 per acre at a $4.00 MYA price, and $10 per acre at a $4.35 MYA price (see Table 1). At the high yield scenario, ARC would make payments at a $3.65 MYA price: $45 per acre. If ARC payments occur, they will be made after October 1, 2015, the year after harvest.

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RELATED TOPICS: Corn, Marketing, Analysis

 
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