Our family farming history began with my great-great-... (nine generations ago) grandfather Johannes. He, his wife and three children left Saxony, Germany, on April 20, 1734, aboard the ship St. Andrew, mastered by Capt. John Stedman. They landed at Philadelphia on Sept. 22 and eventually settled our family’s first "New World" farm near Society Run in Frederick Township, Montgomery County, Pa., in 1743. Pig farming was our family’s specialty until the mid 1950s. A lot has changed since then. Our BQA cow–calf operation includes 100% grass-fed registered Red Angus, Hereford and purebred Beefalo; 30 to 35 pastured Duroc and Spot pigs; 100 Freedom Ranger broilers; and 90 Golden Comet and Buff Orpington layers. We organically maintain 80 acres, comprising 15 acres in rotational pastures, 15 acres in tillable cropland, and alfalfa/mixed grass hay on the balance. We have never used chemical pesticides or herbicides on our pastures or hay fields. We are not a "certified" organic farming operation, but we prefer the natural/organic approach to help promote sustainability.
Nov 13, 2011
Manuring Hay Fields
We don’t spread manure on any of our fields used for Hay production. It’s a personal preference we’ve held since day one. Simply due to the fact that it doesn’t seem like a healthy option. Of course there is manure in our pastures that is deposited by the animals while they graze. As far as I know, no one has been able to train their cattle to only "go" in one area, like pig’s!
I recently read an article in Progressive Forage Grower that spoke about "Johne’s disease" as an increasing problem. The disease is especially problematic in dairy cattle. The article took a look at weather or not manure should be applied to forages? I’m sure most (if not all), of you have heard of Johne’s disease, but do you know how cattle contract the disease?
Calves under 6 months of age are the most susceptible. The common route of infection is when these young calves consume colostrum or milk from infected cow’s/heifers that have been on pasture, or that have eaten forages infected with MAP.
MAP is Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, MAP is what causes "Johne’s disease. MAP can survive in manure & water for up to ONE YEAR!
MAP can be reduced by exposure to sunlight, liming, as well as the process of fermentation which occurs when ensiling.
Manure should NOT be applied to pastures where calves and young heifers graze during grazing season. If you don’t have the option of applying your manure on non-animal pasturing or hay production fields, make sure you apply it/top dress it as soon as possible following harvest. This will allow the sun’s light to kill the bacteria (MAP). If applying manure to your hay fields that will be utilized for haylage, be sure to follow good ensiling techniques. This means making sure the harvested forage is at the proper DMC (dry matter content), when storing in a silo, trench or agbag.
For most of us, grazing is over for the next few months. If applying manure remember to keep it thin/top dress only. Especially if your ground is already frozen.
Pitch of your fields and run-off is another problem you must consider, unless your going to be renovating your hay field in the spring. Make sure you work "it" (manure), in as soon as possible. This will help keep the nitrogen in the ground where you ultimately want it and not going up in the air. This will also help keep the phosphorus out of your streams too! Your local watershed Representatives will thank you.