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December 2012 Archive for Animal Health & Nutrition

RSS By: Rick Lundquist, Dairy Today

Rick Lundquist is an independent nutrition and management consultant based in Duluth, Minn. He provides livestock production advice.

Cow Time Management

Dec 28, 2012

I recently enlisted the help of Novus International on several of my clients’ dairies to study our cow comfort. They installed data loggers on the cows to monitor feeding behavior, lying time and standing and walking time.

The results revealed that our management procedures were often designed for our convenience and not for our cows.

The overall management of a cow’s environment and time budget has a huge impact on feeding, resting and rumination, which in turn impacts cow health and production. Cows should have the opportunity to lie down 10 – 12 hours/day. Anything less will increase the risk of lameness and will reduce potential milk production and fertility.

We found that our stall design and time away from the stalls were our biggest bottlenecks. Cows won’t want to lie down if they have uncomfortable stalls. They can’t lie down if they are kept away from their stalls or locked up too long. Maybe the distance to the parlor is too far or the pen size is too large or we’re just getting them up too soon.

Two things jumped out at us when the data were analyzed. First, many of the cows were away from their pens too long. Our cow pushers were getting them up before the cows needed to. This was for their convenience, not for the cows.

They were standing on concrete, away from their stalls much longer than the goal of about 3 hours/day. This was an easy fix.

Second, our neck rails were too low and too close to the curb. The target for neck rails, according to University of Wisconsin researchers, is 48" or higher above the bedding and 68" or more from the curb.

Why do we have neck rails? To keep the stalls clean. No consideration for cow comfort. We observed cows contorting around the neck rails to lie down or get up in their stalls. Some were perching with their hind feet in the alley.

My clients decided to raise their neck rails and move them forward. One considered removing them all together. In the end, the cows didn’t need them, so why did we have them? For our convenience, so we didn’t have to scrape manure from the back of the stalls. We decided that regular removal of manure from the stalls also got someone in the pens more often to observe the cows.

These dairies were in Florida, so good clean sand is readily available. They all did a good job of keeping beds full.

Lying time decreases about 30 minutes for each inch decline in bedding level in deep bedded stalls, according to researchers at the University of British Columbia

Stocking rate was one item that really didn’t correlate with performance in these herds. We ranged from 82% stocking rate (cows/stall) to 132%. The herds with the higher stocking rates had better cow comfort scores and better overall performance.

This indicated to me that when we tend to our cows’ overall comfort, we not only get better health and production/cow, but we can milk more cows in the same facility.

TABLEHEAD: 24-Hour Time Budget of a Dairy Cow

  • Eating:  5 hours/day
  • Lying (resting):  12-14 hours/day
  • Standing, walking, idling:  2-3 hours/day
  • Drinking: 0.5 hours/day
  • Milking:  2.5-3.5 hours/day

Source: Rick Grant, William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute

Rick Lundquist is an independent nutrition and management consultant based in Duluth, Minn. Contact him at

High Feed Costs Help Suppress Vitamin Prices

Dec 03, 2012

The decline in vitamin usage has resulted in 12-15% lower vitamin markets.

An ironic consequence of high feed costs has been lower supplemental vitamin prices. Feedinfo News Service reported recently that vitamin A, D and E prices have actually declined due the high cost of feed.

High feed costs have prompted many of the livestock industry’s largest producers (poultry, swine, dairy and beef) to trim their supplemental vitamin usage in an effort to reduce cost. The decline in vitamin usage has resulted in 12-15% lower vitamin markets, according to the report. The report also stated that restoring vitamin supplementation to previous usage levels in these operations will probably take longer (months) than the initial decline. Unless these operations were overfeeding vitamins to begin with, deficiency symptoms may start to show up over time or when animals are subjected to disease challenges.

The worldwide vitamin business is controlled by very few players. China now produces most of our vitamins. Once the vitamins in the pipeline are depleted, China could easily shut down production to reduce supply and inflate prices. The vitamin markets have been extremely variable in recent years because of this.

Some premix manufacturers elect to keep their vitamin pricing as stable as possible, regardless of current markets. Others may fluctuate more with the markets. Buying vitamins is kind of a crap shoot for premix manufacturers, and they often end up with inventory that is higher than current market prices.

In the end, it’s hard for most livestock producers to reap much benefit when vitamin prices are low. I recommend maintaining vitamin supplementation at levels for optimum health and performance, based on National Research Council (NRC) guidelines, regardless of prices. Shorting animals to reduce cost can come back and bite you, especially during the winter when most of us are feeding forage that has been stored for a few months. Vitamin levels in forages deplete rapidly during storage. On the other hand, feeding higher than recommended levels usually has no benefit. Take advantage of vitamins that occur naturally in fresh forages, especially vitamin E, which is always expensive.

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