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July 2012 Archive for Syngenta Field Report

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The Syngenta Field Report features information and experts from Syngenta sharing observations about issues growers are dealing with in the fields.

Mistaken Identity: Not All Pigweeds are Created Equal

Jul 30, 2012

Pigweeds

Whether you call it waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, careless weed or something not fit to print, pigweed has earned its nasty reputation.  And while they all belong to the same family, they vary greatly in the damage they inflict. 

Mostly a nuisance, redroot pigweed causes little concern for most growers.  Waterhemp, on the other hand, is spreading rapidly across the Midwest, with most recent reports coming from North Dakota and Minnesota. And then there is Palmer amaranth, by far the worst relative in the pigweed family. Growing multiple inches per day, adapting quickly to herbicides and thriving under high-stress environments, it’s no wonder Palmer amaranth has obtained noxious weed status across multiple states − and most recently in Illinois.

Aaron Hager, University of Illinois Extension weed specialist, warns that Palmer amaranth and waterhemp are vastly expanding their territory further north and says it’s important to learn how to identify each species. 

 

Palmer amaranth

Waterhemp

Redroot pigweed

Seedling Description

- Seed capsule breaks into two cup-like sections when threshed

- Sepals are twice the length of the seed

- Seeds remain in capsule when threshed

- Capsule usually has discernible fracture line

- Sepals, with rounded tips, are curved outward when threshed

- Sepals are twice the length of the seed

 

Daily Growth Rate

- Multiple inches per day

- One inch per day

- Fewer than one inch per day

Mature Plant

- Smooth stem and leaf

- V-shaped variegation on leaf

- Non-branched, long and thick flowering structure

 

- Smooth stem and leaf

- Long, narrow leaves

- Open flowering structure, located near the top

- Small, fine hairs on stem and leaf

- Highly branched, very compact flowering structure

Separate Male and Female plants

Yes

Yes

No

 

To view how these weeds differ in appearance, please refer to the Kansas State University Extension.

Proactive Management Required

If Palmer amaranth or waterhemp are identified while scouting, Hager recommends an integrated approach that utilizes soil-applied herbicides, post-emergence herbicides and mechanical cultivation with the aim of preventing seed production.  With the capability to produce upwards of 1 million seeds per plant, preventing seed bank buildup becomes critical for successful weed management and reducing the likelihood of selecting for resistance.

Contact your local Syngenta field representative if you have any questions about identifying pigweed and the management practices best suited for your field.

 

©2012 Syngenta. Important: Always read and follow all bag tag and label instructions before buying or using Syngenta products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy. Some crop protection products and seed treatments may not be registered for sale or use in all states or counties. Please check with your state or local extension service before buying or using Syngenta products. The Syngenta logo is a trademark of a Syngenta Group Company.

Fungicides Worth Considering, Even in Dry Weather

Jul 10, 2012

Drought may be the most worrisome threat to a corn grower. However, Plant Performance™ can still be boosted in the midst of dry conditions as increased water use efficiency delivers more crop per drop of water and helps plants retain moisture.

Fungicides are often associated with wet conditions because those conditions typically favor disease development; but Syngenta research has demonstrated that, in addition to disease control, applying Quilt Xcel® or Quadris® fungicides can enhance a plant’s water use efficiency.

A 2011 study at Kansas State University showed untreated corn that was fully irrigated (to experience no moisture stress throughout the season) produced the same yield (214 bu/A) as corn treated with Quilt Xcel (an early V4-V8 application and again at R1) at only 60 percent of the full irrigation. In contrast, the untreated corn at 60 percent irrigation yielded 188 bu/A. 

Applications of Quadris during early growth stages (V4 – V8) have also shown positive effects on corn plants growing under dry conditions. The photos below are from a field location in Garden City, Kan. where dry conditions persisted early in the season. You can see the leaves of the untreated plants are shriveled and showing signs of moisture stress. In contrast, the Quadris treated plants look normal and appear to be slightly bigger. The biggest difference was seen when plants were dug up and the roots of the Quadris treated plants were much bigger than the roots of the untreated plant.

quadris pic for agweb post

While Quilt Xcel and Quadris won’t allow you to grow corn in the desert, they can benefit corn when conditions are dry. And when improved water use efficiency is combined with the other physiological benefits these fungicides offer, like greener plants with more growth, larger ears with extended fill,  and stronger stalks for a more efficient harvest, corn producers have the potential to realize considerable value from an application.


For more information, visit www.FarmAssist.com or www.PlantPerformance.com. 

Plant Performance benefits include disease protection. 

© 2012 Syngenta. Important: Always read and follow all bag tag and label instructions before buying or using Syngenta products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy. Some crop protection products and seed treatments may not be registered for sale or use in all states or counties. Please check with your state or local extension service before buying or using Syngenta products. Plant Performance™, Quilt Xcel® and Quadris® are trademarks of a Syngenta group company.

Should I Be Scouting Fields for Corn Rootworm?

Jul 05, 2012

Question: Should I be scouting for corn rootworm in my fields at this point, and is there anything I can do if I have heavy populations?

Answer: The corn rootworm hatch has occurred about 30 days earlier than normal due to the warm temperatures this spring. Depending on the planting date of a particular field, rootworm larvae could have been feeding before the Bt protein was fully expressed if you used transgenic hybrids. There are areas across the Corn Belt where we are seeing one to two nodes of feeding from heavy rootworm pressure right now. Also, rootworms that have fed on the protein can have delayed feeding and emergence; this can still have an impact on the crop beyond the current state.

At this point, adults have begun to emerge and feed on tissue and silks as well, which is really a concern for two reasons. The adults are emerging and feeding on the above ground parts of the plants, which could affect pollination. Plus, each adult female will lay approximately 600 eggs that will overwinter and hatch next spring, and that can have an impact on the 2013 corn crop.

The top priority is helping farmers assess their current pest pressure, including the intensity of feeding and the number of corn rootworm adults present. A half-inch of silk is really the magic number; you need at least a half-inch for optimum pollination. So if you are shedding pollen and you have less than a half-inch of silk that’s when you might address the situation. Where needed, consider an application of a foliar insecticide like Warrior II with Zeon Technology or Besiege as a pollination aid and also to prevent adult females from laying eggs for next year.

Answer provided by Craig Abell, Syngenta Crop Specialist.

The Stinky Truth about Brown Marmorated Stinkbug

Jul 03, 2012

It’s that time of year again, the time when foliar insects start turning up in soybean fields to turn your plants into their dinner. You may have already begun to see some of its effects, but the brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB) is likely to be become one of the unwelcomed dinner guests making an appearance in your fields this season.

BMSB adult
 

Last summer, the BMSB began its invasion of the Southeast, and this year the pesky insect has begun threatening soybeans as far north as Wisconsin. With no natural predators to keep populations in check, it’s likely the BMSB could turn up in your fields. When you are scouting for the BMSB, you will notice the adult insect is about one-half inches long, shield-shaped and "marbled" brown in color. You can distinguish it from other pests by its alternating black and white color pattern on the margins of the abdomen, and its dark-colored antennae marked with light-colored bands.

 

To prevent and stop damage from the BMSB’s insatiable appetite, scout early and act decisively. While you may not always see the insect, be on the lookout for small necrotic spots on leaf surfaces that can often result from feeding damage. The BMSB will cause wart-like growths and deformation or shriveling of the pods. Give your fields the best protection from the BMSB by selecting an insecticide like Endigo® ZC insecticide that provides three industry-leading technologies that work together to provide fast knockdown and longer residual control, delivering higher potential yield and profit.

 

This season, don’t let time or location limit your access to valuable information that can make a real difference in your success. The Syngenta Pest Patrol hotline connects you with expert advice and timely insect pest management recommendations from local agronomists. Simply call (877) 285-8525 to hear the latest update or visit www.SyngentaPestPatrol.com.

 

©2012 Syngenta. Important: Always read and follow all bag tag and label instructions before buying or using Syngenta products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy. Some crop protection products and seed treatments may not be registered for sale or use in all states or counties. Please check with your state or local extension service before buying or using these products. Endigo ZC is a Restricted Use Pesticide. Endigo ZC is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment on blooming crops and weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift onto blooming plants while bees are foraging adjacent to the treatment area. Endigo®and the Syngenta logo are registered trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company.

 

Photo Source: David R. Lance, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org.

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