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July 2014 Archive for Dairy Today Healthline

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Dairy Today Healthline

Hoof Blocking Is Most Critical in Summer and Early Fall

Jul 31, 2014

A closer look at the five main triggers that drive the need to apply hoof blocks.

By Dr. Dana Tomlinson, Research Nutritionist, Zinpro Corporation

Proper blocking is essential to the recovery of diseased, damaged or improperly trimmed claws. Summer and early fall are especially important times with respect to development of claw damage or Claw Horn Disruption (CHD) resulting in the need for pain relief through therapeutic blocking.

Heat stress, for example, often causes cows to increase standing time and can result in CHDs such as sole ulcer, white line disease and heel fracture. Heat abatement measures may also weaken claw horn, as time standing in manure, urine and water increase. Breakdown in horn integrity may accelerate claw wear, resulting in thin soles, as well as loss of heel horn and claw angle. The subsequent weight imbalance can cause sole hemorrhaging, sole ulcers, and painful lameness.

Another often overlooked factor is the increased frequency of parturition (calving) in late-summer and early-fall months. Unfortunately, painful lameness frequently occurs in early lactation (the first two through five months of lactation). Parturition often results in mobility of the pedal bone with potential damage to sole corium, especially if further complicated by extended standing time due to poor stall comfort, additional time in headlocks for health management, high stocking density and poor stockmanship.

Parturition is also closely associated with metabolic disorders such as hypocalcemia (milk fever) and hypoglycemia (ketosis), which often result in production of inferior claw horn. In addition, significant loss of body fat in early lactation may lead to loss of sole fat pad support, which results in sinking of the pedal bone with potential development of a sole ulcer.

When are hoof blocks needed?

There are five main triggers that drive the need to apply hoof blocks:

1. Heat stress, which contributes to CHD due to:
• extended standing time, sole concussion, corium damage and hemorrhage;
• excessive sole wear;
• increased claw hydration due to standing in water, manure and urine; and
• heel fracture from extended standing times.

2. Excessive sole wear caused by:
• long walking distances;
• poor flooring – broken, irregular or deteriorated walking surfaces;
• improperly finished or aggressively grooved flooring;
• walking up and down sloped walkways; and
• sand or other abrasive bedding materials.

3. Metabolic disorders, including milk fever, ketosis, SARA and systemic infections (reproductive or respiratory). These may cause CHD and repeated production of inferior horn with subsequent loss of pedal bone support, sole hemorrhage development, and greater potential for sole ulcer.

4. Infectious claw diseases may result in cows with significant imbalance or loss of sole horn (such as heel horn erosion) or cows that walk on their toes (such as digital dermatitis and foot rot).

5. Improper trimming. Toes trimmed too short, soles trimmed too thin, excess removal of sole horn at the toe, abaxial wall, or excess removal of heel horn (claw angle too shallow) may also require blocking.

Block application steps

Blocking shifts weight bearing within the claw to allow for recovery of damaged living tissue and claw horn. Since sole horn grows at approximately 5 mm (about 0.25 inch) per month, blocks should last at least four weeks or longer. Use the following proper block application steps to help ensure good results.

step 1 1. Check to make sure that the block is applied such that weight is transferred off the diseased or damaged claw. Note the block is 5o higher on the axial side to help lift weight off the affected claw.  This also helps pull the block in under the foot, giving it more support and stability.
step 2 2. Make sure the block is applied so a 50°-52° hoof angle is maintained. Rebalance or reshape block (if needed).

step 3 3a. Apply the block flush or slightly recessed from the tip of the toe.
step 3b 3b. Apply the block flush or slightly recessed from the tip of the toe.
step 4 4. Carefully place block to insure it is perpendicular with the shinbone and parallel with the axis between the claws. Allow block glue to fully cure before releasing the foot.


Dr. Tomlinson has a doctorate degree in animal science, ruminant nutrition and management from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and is employed by Zinpro Corporation as a research nutritionist based in Virginia. Email him at Dtomlinson@Zinpro.com.


Don’t Rely on Book Values When Formulating Rations

Jul 24, 2014

The nutrient values of various feedstuffs aren’t consistent from load to load -- and that’s not easy on a cow’s rumen.

By Dr. Joel Pankowski, Manager, Field Technical Services, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition

The most successful rations feature ingredients that are mixed and fed properly, and are consistent in nutrient value and quality day-in and day-out. This attention to detail enhances feed intake and maximizes cow health and productivity.

However, the nutrient values—like protein, fiber and starch levels—of various feedstuffs are not consistent from load to load. The situation gets even more challenging if you do not work with the right data to make ration decisions.

Variation Occurs Often

The same variation found in forages occurs within many other commodity feedstuffs like soybean meal, dried distillers grains, cottonseed and beet pulp—not all of which are considered to be highly variable. As a result, it’s common practice to simply follow supplier guarantees for many of these ingredients.

However, assuming these values are accurate means you may be overestimating or underestimating the nutrient value of half your ration, since rations are commonly split 50/50 between forages and commodity ingredients. That assumption can lead to unnecessarily high feed cost and/or undesirable animal performance.

"What if the ingredient contributed to 100 more grams of metabolizable protein than the book value projected?" asks John Goeser, director of nutrition, research and innovation at Rock River Laboratory, Inc. "That knowledge of that difference can mean the ability to shave from 7 to 15 cents off your ration cost."

Differences in field conditions, varieties, harvesting, processing and a host of other variables mean it is unrealistic to expect commodity byproduct feed ingredients to remain constant. Still, it’s common to treat them as though their nutrient composition is unchanging when formulating rations.

Book Values a Best-Guess

It’s tempting to use book values to account for ingredient nutrient values to help average or "smooth" out some of the disparity. And while a good resource, some of the values for various commodity feeds housed in the National Research Council (NRC) database may be based on a small sample size. Or, the data used for the library may not be accurate for your region.

In 1989 researchers from the University of Missouri noted that, "Diets incorporating byproduct feeds should be evaluated carefully to avoid mineral imbalances and to maintain protein quality. Use of book values for balancing diets containing significant quantities of byproduct feeds could lead to nutritional problems, and testing should be encouraged."1

Furthermore, a 1995 survey2 of nine commodity feeds in California showed that the nutrient content of these ingredients differed by more than 20% from NRC results. Additional California studies in 2000 and 2007 featuring even more ingredients found similar nutrient variation results.

Feedstuff Variation Is Significant

Data presented by Goeser and his colleagues at the 2013 American Dairy Science Annual Meeting showed significant differences in rumen dry matter digestibility, protein bypass and substantial variation within feeds for soybean meal, canola meal, corn distillers grain, corn gluten, soy hulls and expeller meal.3

"Concentrate feed fiber content variation is just one parameter that’s not generally accounted for in dairy rations," explains Goeser. "Fiber, protein and starch levels are three parameters in these feeds that you really need to monitor to increase ration consistency and accuracy."

A 2012 study at Ohio State University illustrated that the variation in NDF among commodity feed ingredients was similar to the NDF variation found in forages. Assuming a 20% inclusion rate and average within farm variation for concentrate NDF, diet NDF could change by 0.3 to 0.8 percentage units.4

Inaccuracies Impact Performance

It’s not easy for a cow’s rumen to adapt to feed ingredient variation. As a result, suboptimal performance may occur.

For example, research5 conducted at Ohio State University last year showed that dairy cows fed a diet that contained either 7% long-chain fatty acids or 4.8% long-chain fatty acids produced less milk and had lower dry matter intake than cows fed diets with less variation.

What to Do?

While variation will always occur in forages and commodity feeds, you have options to deal with it.

The inclusion of less variable feed ingredients is one area to explore. For example, you can select an ingredient with a consistent level of dietary protein so you know more precisely what cows receive, and then deal with variability for other ration nutrients. At least you can be confident in ration protein.

Another suggestion is to adopt a routine commodity testing program similar to a testing program for your forages. While commodity feeds are not on hand as long as forages, you can compare nutrient composition of a current sample to that of the previous two truckloads to get a sense of the variability for which you must account in formulating diets.

To learn more about managing your ration to minimize variability and achieve consistent performance, visit http://www.transition.ahdairy.com/.

1 Belyea RL, Steevens BJ, Restropo RJ, Clubb AP. Variation in Composition of By-Product Feeds. J of Dairy Sci 1989;72:2339-2345.
2 Arosemena A, DePeters EJ, Fadel JG. Extent of Variability in Nutrient Composition Within Selected By-product Feedstuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 1995;54:103-120.
3 Goeser J, Heuer C, Meyer L. Midwestern U.S. Byproduct Feedstuffs Vary in Ruminal Nutrient Digestion. 2013;ADSA-ASAS JAM Poster TH112.
4 Weiss WP, St.-Pierre NR. Nutrient Variability in Feeds Within Farms, in Proceedings. Cornell Nutrition Conference 2012;157-166.
5 Weiss WP, Yoder P, McBeth L, Shoemaker D, St.-Pierre NR. Effect of Variation in Nutrient Composition of Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows, in Proceedings. 2013 Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference. Available at: http://tristatedairy.osu.edu/Proceedings%202013/William%20Weiss.pdf. Accessed June 2, 2014.


Do You Have An Animal Welfare Plan?

Jul 17, 2014

The absence of an animal care program on your dairy is a ticking time bomb just waiting for an undercover video. Here’s how to start your program.

thayerBy Travis Thayer, Diamond V

In my role as Dairy Technical Trainer with Diamond V, I work with dairy producers to help their employees understand the "why" behind the protocols that they are asked to follow (milking, feeding, fresh cow treatment, calf care, maternity, etc.).

With the recent flurry of animal activist videos showing grievous cases of animal abuse, I am increasingly asked to talk to employees about animal welfare, down cow care and basic animal handling, with the goal of preventing any of these types of unfortunate situations on their farms.

Many dairies are very progressive and have solid animal care programs in place before I ever step foot on the farm. In that case, I just review the issues of public perception and humane animal care with the employees and go over the protocols that are already in place.

However, some dairies have not yet fully implemented programs to train and direct employees with protocols on proper animal care. This is a ticking time bomb just waiting for a video that could result in loss of your market and livelihood, and will decrease consumer confidence in our industry. Consumers are increasingly interested and aware of where their food comes from, and they want to feel confident that the animals in your care are treated humanely.

Following are a few key points to consider in the animal care program on your operation:

It Starts at the Top

Create an animal care agreement (in employees’ appropriate native language) that employees must sign stating that they understand that animal abuse on your farm is not tolerated and will result in immediate termination. It should also include a statement that employees are expected to report any abuse they observe on the farm by other employees, and that failure to do so will result in their termination as well. Hold a meeting to discuss the issues and let employees know that proper animal care is expected. From that point forward, make the animal care agreement part of new employee training, and consider periodic meetings to reinforce these guidelines with all employees.

Have a Plan

Consider the following questions:
• Do you have a plan to safely (for people and cows) and humanely move non-ambulatory animals out of tight spots (milking parlors, holding pens, alleyways, etc.) without dragging them or otherwise causing additional harm?
• Do you have a down cow care protocol that lays out proper animal care guidelines, including timely, humane euthanasia, if necessary?
• Do the employees have access to all the tools they need to do the job safely and humanely?
• Are the employees aware of the protocols, and have they been properly trained to execute them?

If the answer to these questions is yes, great! You are way ahead of the game. But, if you answered no to any of these questions, it is time to review your program and make changes.

Behave as if Everything You Do is on Video

I advise owners, managers, and employees to always act as if you are already on video. If you are doing something that you would not feel comfortable seeing on YouTube, rethink what you are doing.

Consider Context

Several of the videos out there not only show physical mistreatment of animals, but are also accompanied by audio with language that might make a sailor blush. Consider the following situation that shows up on video:

You have a cow that just slipped in the alley. She looks alert and strong and you think she can get up on her own, and she is in a place that allows her the space to do so. You make sure she has good footing, and you slap her on the rump to startle her to get up, lifting her tail to help, and when that does not work, you decide to touch her once with a hotshot to see if you can get her to make the effort. This is an acceptable, humane attempt to help her get up.Now overlay two different audio tracks that go with the video:

First Audio Track: The handler is speaking words of encouragement in a caring voice – "Come on, mama." "You can do it!" "Almost there!" accompanied by gentle sounds, kisses, clucks, etc.

Second Audio Track: The handler shouts loudly, in anger and frustration and releases a string of cusswords that they would never utter in polite company. "Get up you miserable ****!"

Which audio track is likely to convey compassion and caring, and instill confidence in the consumer that this animal is being taken care of humanely? Attitude is everything. It is natural to be frustrated, especially when one is very busy and has a lot of work to get done. Take a time out. Count to 10. Go get a drink. Take a break. Do whatever it takes to get your emotions under control and do the best job you can to help the cow. If she is unable to get up on her own after a reasonable attempt at encouragement, follow your non-ambulatory cow protocol to move her to a safe, clean, comfortable place where you can give her proper treatment and supportive care.

Consult Your Herd Veterinarian

Veterinarians are the best resource for proper animal care protocols on your farm. Ask a veterinarian familiar with your farm to review and/or create protocols on your farm, unique to your facilities. They can offer solutions for proper non- ambulatory cow movement, down cow treatment protocols, and proper euthanasia techniques.

Accidents happen on farms sometimes, creating unpleasant situations that need to be managed properly. Anticipate and plan, and they can be resolved in a humane way that shows that you care.

Travis Thayer, DVM, is Dairy Technical Trainer for Diamond V. Based in California, he can be reached at 510-910-3126 or tthayer@diamondv.com.

Watch Temperatures When Vaccinating to Prevent Calf Respiratory Disease

Jul 10, 2014

Tips to help ensure your dairy heifers get the most protection possible when the heat hits.

Novartis   Doug Scholz, DVM, director of veterinary services, Novartis Animal Health

By Doug Scholz, DVM, Director of Veterinary Services, Novartis Animal Health

Reducing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in developing dairy heifers is important from both an animal welfare and economic standpoint, regardless of the season or climate.

Calf pneumonia can strike any time of year and puts future herd productivity at risk. A study tracking the effects of respiratory disease on Holstein calves showed those with a history of respiratory disease are two-and-one-half times more likely to die prior to delivering their first calves, as compared to calves that remained healthy.1

Bovine respiratory disease associated with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, in particular, is recognized for its severity and rapid onset in dairy calves, so vaccinating to prevent BRD is a smart herd health management protocol. To get the most protection vaccines can offer, producers need to remember that other factors such as stress, nutrition and weather should all be taken into account to ensure that vaccine programs provide the best result.

As summer heats up, so does the likelihood of calves experiencing heat stress. One of the challenges of heat stress is that it limits an animal’s ability to build an immune response, and there is no way to predict which animals are more sensitive to its effects. Administering vaccines in excessively hot or humid conditions should be avoided whenever possible. It’s always better to vaccinate early in the day when air temperatures are cooler. And that goes for both calves and cows. In the summertime, this means avoiding vaccinating cattle if the temperature is above 85 degrees with humidity above 40%, or at higher temperatures with lower humidity.

Heat stress can also lower an animal’s natural barriers to bacteria.2 That’s why it’s also important not to overload cattle with gram-negative vaccines in the heat of summer. For the best advice regarding summertime vaccinations and timing, consult with your herd veterinarian.

Additional Vaccination Tips:

• Properly store products.
• Administer vaccines according to label directions.
• Use good hygiene when administering vaccines.
• Keep appropriate treatments like epinephrine on hand to quickly address any adverse animal reaction.

1. Waltner-Toews D, Martin SW, Meek AH. The effect of early calfhood health status on survivorship and age at first calving. Can J Vet Res 1986;50:314-317.
2. Lambert GP. Stress-induced gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and its inflammatory effects. J Animal Sci 2009;87:E101-E108.

For more information visit www.ah.novartis.us or www.nuplura.com.


Calcium Is the Cornerstone to Transition Cow Success

Jul 03, 2014

Strategies for meeting your herd’s calcium needs.

By Glenn Holub, Prince Agri Products, Inc.

The transition period is the most challenging time during the production cycle of a dairy cow. One of the major determinants of whether a cow transitions properly is her ability to maintain normal blood calcium concentrations of more than 8.5 mg/dL.

A recent study reported more than 50 percent of cows and 25 percent of first lactation heifers have blood calcium concentrations after calving in the range considered subclinical (Reinhardt, 2011). Subclinical hypocalcemic cows are at greater risk for developing metabolic and infectious diseases postpartum, illustrating the importance of calcium status during the transition period. Fortunately, the physiology of calcium status is now more fully understood and can be effectively managed through proper management and nutrition. Through the use of these nutritional strategies, it is possible to help reduce the diseases related to low blood calcium.

The metabolic and physiological demands for calcium increase dramatically as calving approaches. The calving process, colostrum production and milk synthesis all have a requirement for calcium and collectively may exceed the available levels in circulation, leading to either subclinical hypocalcemia or clinical milk fever. Calcium is essential for normal cellular activity and function of almost all cells. Cells of the immune system have the same need, and cows that become hypocalcemic are more susceptible to infection and disease because immune cell activity is impaired.

Meeting calcium needs

There are several strategies for maintaining blood calcium concentrations to avoid hypocalcemia. Most practical and effective approaches nutritionally manipulate dietary macro-mineral ions, such as chloride, sulfur, sodium and potassium. By feeding a diet higher in the negative ions (chlorine and sulfur) and lower in the positive ions (sodium and potassium), the cow’s blood becomes mildly acidic. This stimulates the physiological processes needed to mobilize bone calcium stores and initiate dietary intestinal calcium uptake necessary for meeting the calcium demands associated with transition. This strategy is referred to as feeding a negative dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) diet or ‘acidified’ diet.

The success of a negative DCAD nutritional strategy can be measured using urine pH prepartum and blood calcium levels within the first 24 to 48 hours of calving. Urine pH targets, when samples are tested after three to four days of feeding a negative DCAD diet, should be within the range of 5.5 to 6.0 for all breeds.

Negative DCAD diets are most effective when fed at a calculated DCAD value of -10 to -15 mEq/100g of dry matter and fed continuously for a minimum of 21 days prior to calving. Because some DCAD feed additives are not palatable, it is important to feed a product that promotes a high level of dry matter intake during this period.

Monitoring blood calcium levels

If postpartum blood calcium concentrations are monitored, values should be near or above 8.5 mg/dL. Blood calcium concentrations begin to fall two or three days prior to calving due to demand for colostrum production. During this time, a dry matter intake reduction usually takes place and exacerbates the issue of lowered calcium concentrations.

Typically, blood calcium concentrations are lowest two to three days after calving, and cows do not usually recover fully until three to four days later when normal blood calcium concentrations return to 8.5 to 10 mg/dL. Fresh cow diets containing calcium concentrations between 1.0 and 1.1 percent may provide the necessary levels to avoid prolonged subclinical hypocalcemia status. Utilizing ingredients with high bioavailability may be warranted.

In addition to feeding the proper dietary levels of anions, other nutritional adjustments need to be made to the pre-fresh negative DCAD diet to ensure optimal transition success. These include feeding dietary dry matter levels of 1.4 to 1.6 percent for calcium and 0.45 to 0.5 percent for magnesium.

Keeping a cow’s blood calcium level at or above 8.5 mg/dL throughout the transition period by feeding a highly palatable -10 to -15 mEq/100g negative DCAD or fully acidified diet will help reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia and its related cascade of diseases. Following this with a highly bioavailable calcium diet postpartum will further enhance the recovery from transition to peak milk.
Strategies for meeting your herd’s calcium needs.

Glenn Holub, Ph.D., PAS, is a dairy technology manager for Prince Agri Products, Inc. He is a former animal science professor specializing in dairy cattle nutrition and can be contacted at glenn.holub@princeagri.com.

Reinhardt, T. A., J. D. Lippolis, B. J. Mc Cluskey, J. P. Goff, and R.L. Horst. 2011. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy herds. Vet. J. 188:122–124.

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