Oct 1, 2014
Home| Tools| Blogs| Discussions| Sign UpLogin


In the Shop

RSS By: Dan Anderson, Farm Journal

As a farm machinery mechanic and writer, Dan brings a hands-on approach that only a pro can muster. Along with his In the Shop blog, Dan writes a column by the same name as well as the Shop Series for Farm Journal magazine. Always providing practical information, he is a master at tackling technical topics and making them easy for all of our readers to understand. He and his wife, Becky, live near Bouton, Iowa.

Harvest Considerations

Sep 28, 2014

 A few farmers have started harvest. Here are a few things we've seen thus far:

-soils are soggy in our area. Combines are leaving 4- to 8-inch ruts all the way across the field. That means the combines are riding low compared to their soybean platform, which changes the angle of the cutterbar. We're having to tilt the front plate of the feederhouse much more than usual to get soybean platforms to cut close.

-It has proven to be a significant advantage to cut beans at an angle to the rows instead of "with" the rows. When you cut with the rows the combine's tires are already in the depressions between the rows and that accentuates any rutting that can change the relationship of the combine to the cutterbar. Running at a slight angle--generally 3 to 10 degrees--reduces to some degree the depth of ruts and therefore the cutterbar angle. And soybeans feed more evenly into the machine when cut at an angle to the row, wether the ground is soggy or not.

-It will either be a breeze or a challenge to adjust combines to harvest corn this fall. Some varieties seem to be shelling easily--guys make one adjustment and then easily harvest #1 corn. Other varieties have rubbery cobs, lots of leaves, and/or other traits that make it tough to get clean, undamaged grain in the tank. Rubbery cobs require close concave settings and higher cylinder/rotor speeds, and in some cases there is a trade-off between leaving grain on the cobs and selling slightly damaged grain. The alternative is to let the corn dry in the field, allow the cobs to firm up, and then harvest it.

-Another cause of leaving corn in the field during early harvest is often traced to combine operators trying to chop stalks with their corn head. Running corn head snouts close to the ground with gathering chains spinning at top speed cuts off stalks and leaves and sends them through the combine. That's great for the guy running the disk-ripper for fall tillage, but all the extra trash makes it difficult for the grain to separate from that trash during the 15 to 20 seconds it's passing through the combine, and creates problems with corn getting tossed out the straw chopper. Several combines that were spewing grain out the back last week were magically cured by simply raising the corn head to run the gathering chains just below ear height, and then slowing the chains and stalk rolls down to less than super-sonic speed.

As one farmer noted while carving knee-deep ruts through a sidehill seep in a soybean field where he had to constantly change ground speed, reel height and reel speed to accomodate laid-over soybeans that varied in height by more than two feet: "Looks like I'm going to have to work at combining this year."

First Day In The Field Fixes

Sep 21, 2014

 We're just starting to combine crops in this area, and the "first-day-in-the-field foible"s have already appeared. Some of the most common things we have to go out and fix are related to autosteer systems. Quite simply, people forget to switch their autosteer systems from when they last used it.

For example, they used autosteer to plant or spray last spring. When they switch the receiver from their tractor to their combine, it's necessary to "tell" the system it's now in a combine with an 8-row cornhead or 30-foot soybean platform. Some of the newer autosteer systems do a decent job recognizing what machine they're installed in, and make most of the changes automatically and internally. Older systems (as in, more than 2 or 3 years old) often need to be switched and told what machine they're in and what size of equipment/swath they'll be monitoring and controlling.

It's a good idea to check the calibration and programming of any autosteer system before going to the field. Do it several days before you go to the field, because it's really frustrating to be waiting on the headlands of a field of soybeans, ready to harvest, when the combine wants to drive in circles instead of in straight, even passes across the field. Make sure the machine, header, swath width, and offsets are appropriate to the machine. WRITE DOWN ALL THE SETTINGS from planting and spraying before you enter new settings for combining, so you can refer to them (1) if something happens and they get wiped out of the system, and (2) so they'll be available NEXT year when you need to switch back to planting. Then write down all the settings you enter for harvest, for all the same reasons.

Don't be embarrassed if you crawl into your combine cab and can't remember how to adjust everything. Modern combines are so complicated that very few people can remember from year to year what buttons to push on which screen to make specific changes. The owner's manuals are two inches thick and written for computer science majors, so don't feel stupid if it takes a while to remember how to adjust the concave, change feederhouse speeds or...simply set the clock on the radio.

I'm currently digging around in owner's manuals trying to figure out how to change the clock in a customer's combine from military time to standard time...I'm doing it in my spare time, and started two days ago. So far, no luck.

Giving Credit To Plain Ol' Shops

Sep 18, 2014

 I'm guilty of getting giddy over "super shops" that some farmers have. It's hard not to be impressed with cavernous shops with polished concrete floors, enough lights for surgery, metal-topped tool benches, welders, plasma cutters, and more tools than a Snap-on tool truck.

But I've been keeping track, and most of the shops I've been in during recent service calls are plain ol' machine sheds with a slab of concrete at one end, a couple plank-topped workbenches and some storage bins. The deluxe version of a Plain Ol' Shop has a welder, a torch, a chop saw, a big air compressor and an actual mechanic's toolbox--though the most of the tools are scattered around the work benches and rarely actually in the toolbox.

The cool thing is that most of the farmers with Plain Ol' Shops get along just fine. Sure, they talk about putting concrete in the rest of the shed, installing heat and getting decent lights installed, but they never quite get around to it. But they get the necessary maintenance and repairs done on their equipment even though they're "roughing it."

Some farmers are shop rats who love working on equipment and spend all their spare time in their shop. Or they have a couple hired men or family members and can justify having a mega-shop to keep everybody busy and save money on maintenance and repairs. Other farmers work on equipment as needed but don't view spending time in their shop as a form of recreation. I'm still in awe of farmers with mega-shops, but the more I think about it, the more respect I have for the guys who get along just fine with Plain Ol' Shops.

As one proud owner of a Plain Ol' Shop told me, "If I had a fancy heated shop with all the bells and whistles, I'd have to be out there every day doing something, just to justify what it cost. With my ol' shop, if it's rainy or windy or cold and I don't feel like working on things, it doesn't bother me a bit to go into the house and watch Dr. Phil."

Corn Reels and Concave Filler Plates

Sep 14, 2014

 Every year there are challenges during harvest that send farmers scurrying for aftermarket accessories to deal with those challenges. Lodged corn, soft ears, high-moisture corn, green-stemmed soybeans, green-pod soybeans and other conditions sometimes benefit from aftermarket "add-ons" to help combines deal with unusual harvest situations.

Cornhead reels definitely work when corn is blown over, goose-necked or standing less than good. For those unfamiliar with corn head reels (you lucky devils…), a cornhead reel is a shaft that stretches across the front of a corn head, centered above the front ends of the snapping rolls. Slender arms, call them fingers, extend over each row almost to the snapping rolls. The cross shaft is turned slowly by a geared-down hydraulic motor so that the arms slowly lift and guide downed stalks into the rolls and gathering chains. 

Some corn head reels are big and bulky, some are smaller and less obtrusive, but the darn things really help no matter what their size. They aren't foolproof, and won't help when cornfields are literally flattened, but they definitely reduce plugging in fields that are moderately lodged.

If you've had a cornhead reel for several years, be sure to check it over. The spindly nature of the gathering arms makes them prone to cracks. It's a very good idea to look over all aspects of a cornhead reel pre-season (and regularly during the season) to make sure there are no cracks that will lead to an arm or other piece of metal getting fed into the combine. It happens frequently, especially the first day or two after a "used" corn head reel goes to the field and any long-rusted cracks weaken and break under stress.

Green-stem and green-pod soybeans are another common problem that sell a lot of aftermarket accessories to combines. Some guys renovate their entire combine, putting in custom concaves and threshing components to reduce problems with "green beans." In many cases the combine manufacturer offers special concave filler plates, concave covers, smooth rasp bars, extra-corrugated rasp bars or other components that are designed for food-grade crops or hard-to-harvest crops. Before overhauling the entire machine, be sure the combine manufacturer doesn't offer a cheaper, simpler-to-install remedy for harvesting problem.

Frustration-Reducers For Bean Platforms

Sep 11, 2014

 As soybean platforms stretch all the way out to 45 feet in width, changing all the plastic skid shoes, knife guards or sickle sections becomes a major chore simply because there are so many skid shoes, knife guards or sickle sections to change. A couple tools make those repetitive chores faster and easier.

I've written before about using an air hammer to remove and install plastic skid shoes. Use a chisel bit to shear off the heads of the old hammer rivets, then pull off the old poly. Use a rivet-setting bit to install the new rivets. Tom, an old friend from high school, said he bought an air hammer after reading that suggestion, and said it almost made installing new plastic skids shoes "fun."

Many of you already have battery-powered impact wrenches. My go-to tool for replacing knife guards is a 1/2-inch drive battery-powered impact wrench with a impact-style "wobble socket" on it. My preferred weapon for replacing sickle sections is a 3/8-drive battery-powered impact wrench with an appropriate-size wobble socket. I need the power of the 1/2 drive unit for the larger bolts that hold the knife guards, but the lighter weight of the 3/8 is preferred for the smaller sickle section nuts. Plus, having two impacts eliminates the need to keep switching sockets.

The reason I prefer impact-type wobble sockets is because they don't have to be perfectly aligned perpendicular to the nuts/bolts. They're a little tricky to use until you get used to them, but once you get the knack you'll find you reach for wobble sockets every time you use your battery-powered impact.

Don't cheap out and try to use a standard socket with a "flex" adapter. That combination flings sockets all over the machine shed. Spend a few bucks, go online or find a good tool store, and buy a "flex impact socket" in the sizes to fit your average knife guard bolts and sickle section nuts. They'll cost $10 to $30 each, depending on size, but I predict they'll become a favorite tool once you get used to them.

Log In or Sign Up to comment

COMMENTS

Receive the latest news, information and commentary customized for you. Sign up to receive Top Producer's eNewsletter today!

 
 
 
 
The Home Page of Agriculture
© 2014 Farm Journal, Inc. All Rights Reserved|Web site design and development by AmericanEagle.com|Site Map|Privacy Policy|Terms & Conditions