USDA has granted Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health safety and efficacy claim approvals for the transdermal (TD) administration of three vaccines, which include modified-live virus strains of Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD) Type 1 and Type 2, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) and the avirulent-live culture strains of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica.
TD administration means the vaccine is delivered through the skin using a high-pressure, needleless-delivery system. Using mechanical compression to force vaccine fluid through a small orifice, these devices produce a high-pressure stream that is smaller in diameter than a 21-gauge needle. Subsequently, the stream can penetrate skin and subcutaneous tissue, delivering a broad dispersion of vaccine antigens directly to the mucosal surface just below the animal's skin.
In addition, needle-free vaccine delivery carries the added benefit of reducing the risk of disease transmission of bovine leukosis (leukemia), anaplasmosis and BVD persistent infections (PI) through blood transfer. This means beef and dairy producers soon will have one more needle-free option for effectively administering these important respiratory antigens.
"Vaccine administration has evolved into a strategic tool,” says Dr. Scott Nordstrom, Manager, Veterinary Technical Services for Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health. "Improvements in vaccines and their delivery systems to increase vaccine efficacy, safety, Beef Quality Assurance compliance and to minimize animal stress are essential in the beef and dairy industries. TD administration, like intranasal administration, offers a highly efficacious and safe, needle-free option for vaccine delivery. The uniting factors of these two forms of vaccine administration are that both are noninvasive and provide a proven immunologic advantage.”
Research indicates vaccine delivery via a transdermal (TD) or intranasal (IN) administration route, may provide a more rapid immunological response than vaccines administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly because the vaccine antigens go directly to the major sites of immune response — rather than taking a systemic route. In addition, immunization by either a TD or IN route may be an effective strategy to avoid interference by maternal antibodies.
"Research also shows mucosal specific immunization provides systemic immunologic memory to future infection; hence, priming the immune system,” Nordstrom says.
Similarly, the intranasal route of vaccine administration provides the important advantage of vaccine delivery directly to mucosal surfaces, via the nasal passageway. Nordstrom says this is significant because nearly all infectious diseases of cattle initiate at the mucosal surface, such as in the nose.
"With the recent launch of Onset™ 5 IN, we've applied this understanding of mucosal immune response to calves as young as 3 days of age, further advancing alternative vaccine administration strategies to incorporate with very young and high-risk cattle.”
Intranasal and TD routes of administration also offer many safety advantages, including the elimination of injection site issues, the potential to reduce immunosuppression associated with subcutaneous and/or intramuscular vaccination and safe administration of gram negative antigens, such as Pasteurella multocida, to newborn calves and high-stress cattle.
For more information about Onset 5 IN and the full line of Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health cattle products, go to www.intervetusa.com.