Crop Production: June Agricultural Summary

July 12, 2011 02:59 AM
 

Above average temperatures and unusually dry weather continued to dominate much of the southern half of the United States during June, compounding the effects of low soil moisture levels and adversely affecting crop conditions. Temperatures in an area centered over Oklahoma and northern Texas were as many as 8 degrees above average, with recordings in isolated locations reaching upward of 10 degrees above average. Conversely, cool, wet weather limited fieldwork and small grain crop development throughout much of the Northern Tier and along the Pacific Coast.

By June 5, corn producers had planted 94 percent of this year's crop, 5 percentage points behind last year and 4 percentage points behind the 5-year average. As the month began, planting was most active in Ohio, where improved conditions allowed ample time for fieldwork following unusually wet weather earlier in the season. Warm temperatures coupled with adequate soil moisture levels in many of the major producing States provided nearly ideal growing conditions for emerging corn plants during the first half of June. By June 19, emergence was 97 percent complete, 3 percentage points behind last year and 2 percentage points behind the 5-year average. Silking was underway in seven of the 18 major estimating States by July 3; however, progress was well behind both last year and normal in most States due to late spring planting. Overall, 69 percent of the corn crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 67 percent on June 5 and 71 percent from the same time last year.
 
Warm, sunny weather aided a rapid planting pace in many of the major sorghum-producing States during the first half of June. In the 14 day period ending June 12, producers planted 29 percent of this year's crop. Dryland sorghum fields across much of Texas were in need of rainfall to continue developing, while harvest was underway in a limited number of fields in the Coastal Bend by mid-month. With activity limited to Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, one-quarter of the Nation's sorghum crop was headed by June 19, eight percentage points ahead of both last year and the 5-year average. As June ended, heading inched forward, with progress yet to begin in Kansas and limited development evident in Texas. Overall, 36 percent of the sorghum crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 38 percent on June 12 and 71 percent from the same time last year.
 
Poor weather conditions throughout the spring led to seeding and crop development delays in many of the major oat-producing States. Seeding was ongoing as the month began and despite significant delays in North Dakota and Ohio, planting progress Nationwide was 96 percent complete by June 12. Emergence was 96 percent complete by June 19, with heading complete in Texas and underway in all other major estimating States except North Dakota. Warmer temperatures across much of the growing region promoted double-digit head development during the week ending June 26. By month's end, harvest was nearly complete in Texas, while head development was behind both last year and the average in all other estimating States. Overall, 59 percent of the oat crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 58 percent on June 5 and 81 percent from the same time last year.
 
With seeding nearing completion in Idaho, Minnesota, and Washington, 80 percent of the Nation's barley crop was in the ground by June 5, nineteen percentage points behind both last year and the 5-year average. Despite improved weather conditions affording producers in North Dakota ample time to complete fieldwork early in the month, seeding progress for the State was 25 percentage points behind normal by June 12. Although warmer temperatures in portions of the major barley-producing regions promoted rapid crop emergence during the first half of the month, progress remained well behind normal. Toward month's end, producers in North Dakota battled soggy fields in hopes of sowing as much of their intended acreage as possible before the lateness of the season prevented further seeding. By July 3, barley producers Nationwide had seeded 96 percent of this year's crop, with 93 percent of the crop emerged. With progress limited to Idaho, Minnesota, and Washington, 9 percent of the barley crop was at or beyond the headed stage by July 3, thirty percentage points behind last year and 38 percentage points behind the 5-year average. Overall, 76 percent of the barley crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 66 percent on June 12 and 85 percent from the same time last year.
 
Seventy-nine percent of the 2011 winter wheat crop was at or beyond the heading stage by June 5, four percentage points behind last year and 6 percentage points behind the 5-year average. In Kansas, the largest winter wheat-producing State, heading was complete with 50 percent of the crop turning color and 11 percent mature. Harvest was underway in Arkansas, California, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas, with progress in the southern Great Plains well ahead of normal due to unusually hot, dry weather that helped to quickly dry down the crop. Heading progress in the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains was limited by cool, wet weather throughout much of the month. Harvest advanced at a rapid a pace in many States as warm, dry weather continued to quickly mature the crop. By July 3, ninety-seven percent of the winter wheat crop was at or beyond the heading stage, with 56 percent of the crop harvested, 4 percentage points ahead of both last year and the 5-year average. Overall, 36 percent of the winter wheat crop was reported in good to excellent condition, compared with 34 percent on June 5 and 63 percent from the same time last year.
 
As June began, spring wheat seeding continued in the six major estimating States. By June 5, emergence had advanced to 57 percent complete, 32 percentage points behind last year and 35 percentage points behind the 5-year average. Improved growing conditions in most States promoted double-digit emergence during the 14 days ending June 12; however, overall progress remained well behind normal. Cool, wet conditions in Montana and North Dakota led to delays of 21 percentage points or more by June 19. With progress complete in four of the six major spring wheat-producing States, 95 percent of the crop was seeded by June 26. Thirteen percent of the crop was at or beyond the heading stage by July 3. With cool temperatures dominating much of the Northern Tier throughout the growing season, head development was 32 percentage points or more behind normal. Overall, 70 percent of the spring wheat crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 68 percent on June 12 and 83 percent from the same time last year.
 
Rice producers had seeded 99 percent of the rice crop by June 5, on par with last year but slightly ahead of the 5-year average. In Arkansas, fields were being flooded with 89 percent of the crop emerged. Warmer temperatures in California promoted increased crop emergence mid-month. By June 19, Nationwide emergence was 97 percent complete, on par with both last year and the 5-year average. While double-digit progress was evident in California, hot, dry weather limited seed germination in Texas, where emergence was 14 percentage points behind normal. Heading was underway in the Lower Delta and Texas by June 26, with progress most advanced in Louisiana. As June ended, rice fields in California were sprayed with herbicide as producers along the Upper Coast in Texas prepared to begin harvest. Overall, 60 percent of the rice crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 59 percent on June 5 and 72 percent from the same time last year.
 
With the exception of States where soybean planting was nearing completion, nearly ideal weather conditions and producers switching their focus from corn to beans allowed for double-digit progress during early June. By June 12, producers had planted 87 percent of this year's crop, 3 percentage points behind last year and 2 percentage points behind the 5-year average. In Iowa, warmer temperatures and sunshine promoted rapid crop growth. Favorable fieldwork conditions continued much of the month, and by June 26, producers had planted 97 percent of the Nation's crop, slightly ahead of both last year and the 5-year average. Blooming was underway in 17 of the 18 major estimating States by July 3, but progress was behind normal. Overall, 66 percent of the soybean crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 67 percent on June 12 but unchanged from the same time last year.
 
As the month began, cotton planting was most active in Tennessee, where warm temperatures and sunny skies provided nearly a week of days suitable for fieldwork. By June 5, producers had planted 87 percent of the Nation's crop, 3 percentage points behind last year but on par with the 5-year average. In Texas, producers planted dryland fields in the Plains to meet insurance deadlines. While warm temperatures promoted rapid square development in Arizona, Louisiana, and Virginia mid-month, hot, windy weather coupled with mostly short to very short soil moisture levels damaged portions of the cotton crop in the High Plains of Texas. Nationally, 21 percent of the crop was at or beyond the squaring stage by June 19, five percentage points behind last year and 4 percentage points behind the 5-year average. Above average temperatures continued across the South throughout much of June, aiding rapid crop development in many cotton-producing States. Bolls were setting on 9 percent of the country's cotton acreage by June 26, two percentage points ahead of last year but on par with the 5-year average. Conversely, poor seed germination and emergence of dryland cotton in areas of the Texas Plains left crop development behind normal. By July 3, squaring was 49 percent complete, 13 percentage points behind last year and 6 percentage points behind the 5-year average. Overall, 28 percent cotton crop was reported in good to excellent condition on July 3, compared with 28 percent on June 12 and 65 percent from the same time last year.
 

Ninety-six percent of the sugarbeet crop was planted by June 5, four percentage points behind both last year and the 5-year average.


 
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