Every Year Adds Up
One lesson I learn every year—whatever the growing conditions—is to respect what a field tells you. Yield data can be frustrating, especially in a year like 2012 where we saw 100-bu. swings in a single field. It takes time to dig deep and fully understand why the crop turned out the way it did. Even so, there are lessons I’ve learned from the Farm Journal Test Plots that hold true every year.
Fundamentals matter. The more you know about agronomic fundamentals, the easier it is to achieve higher yields. Without the principles of soil, water, pest management and fertility, it’s tough to answer questions about why something happened or to see the repeatability you need to make a management change. Key decisions must be rooted in the fundamentals.
Technology is a game-changer. No longer are our plots analyzed pass by pass. We use management zones that are redefined and refined every year. As each piece of new technology comes along, it opens the door for other opportunities and technologies. We can do things now that we didn’t even dream about 20 years ago. Take the drought of 1988 as an example. Back then we knew areas of a field were dead, but we didn’t know specifically where they were. With the 2012 drought, aerial imaging and yield mapping allow us to know definitively where they are. Even if it’s only one soil type in one management zone, we can answer the question of why it fell so hard.
Variable-rate technology has arrived. This year as we investigated our results, it was apparent that water was king and we saw impressive responses to variable-rate populations. If you made decisions on just one year’s data, you’d lower all your populations because of the risk of high populations in a droughty year. Ten years ago, a lot of our fields weren’t planted thick enough and 28,000 plants per acre was a high-rate population. Today, the high population rate is up to 36,000, but our data also says some areas of the field are planted too thick. That’s where variable-rate population pays. Variable-rate nitrogen isn’t as impactful in a dry year, but nitrogen timing is still important to manage. All of this adds up to tweaking management zones every year for the best success.
The planter pass is paramount. Whether you’re planting corn, soybeans or cotton, it’s crucial to get the planter pass right and get the crop off to a strong start. There is no substitute for that. Fortunately, there is technology available today that can help us monitor planter performance and tweak it in the field.
Nitrogen demands management. The weather and environment have such a big impact on nitrogen that you can’t manage all the variables just once a year. These include rainfall, crop residue, tillage conditions, mineralization rate of soils and more. Nitrogen is a moving target, and farmers need to be ready to react. Even though nitrogen is an input we apply every year, producers should approach it as they do pests, recognizing that changes in condition require a tailored approach.
Once that mindset is in place, a farmer is ready to consider assorted application methods, various products to manage risk, technology to apply different rates in different parts of the field, and the latest technology in testing. For example, the Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test, which we use to estimate the amount of nitrogen the soil can give, is a good place to start. Overall, I’ve seen top-notch nitrogen management translate to 100-bu. increases in yield.
Uniform soil density. If you go back 25 to 30 years, we were hitting a wall with strip-till and no-till. But then we realized the problems were underground and that we have to manage for a uniform soil profile. Now we can pinpoint past density issues—plow soles and disk pans, for example—and once they are removed, every other management decision works better. Trying to find the one tillage or soil density practice that works on every soil is perhaps unrealistic. But we’re working to learn how to farm in the vertical format to achieve and maintain uniform soil density.
Focus on the right thing. No matter how difficult some of our yield information can be to understand, instead of just ignoring it or saying something doesn’t work, it is always worth trying to answer the question of "why." The test plots have taught us to focus on the right things. If you take one thing out of the equation and don’t take the rest, it can be very frustrating and confusing. We’re always listening to farmers, which is why we launched a series of test plots on cover crops. Most importantly, remember that on your path to higher yields, there is no silver bullet.
Send questions and comments to Ken Ferrie, Farm Journal, P.O. Box 958, Mexico, MO 65265 or [email protected]. Your questions will be answered in this column or on the "Ask an Agronomist" blog at www.FarmJournal.com. Individual personal replies are not possible. The information provided is not a replacement for receiving personalized agronomic consulting.