Winter wheat: Production is forecast at 1.42 billion bushels, down 4 percent from 2010. Based on May 1 conditions, the United States yield is forecast at 44.5 bushels per acre, down 2.3 bushels from the previous year. Expected grain area totals 32.0 million acres, up 1 percent from last year. As of May 1, thirty-four percent of the United States winter wheat crop was rated in good to excellent condition, 34 points below the same week in 2010, and heading had reached 33 percent in the 18 major producing States, 4 percentage points ahead of the 5-year average.
In the southern Great Plains States, dry weather during the winter and spring has led to poor growing conditions. Crop conditions declined from last year in all of the major Hard Red Winter (HRW) producing States except Montana. As of May 1, the percent of crop rated good to excellent in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas was 49 points or more below last year. Yields are forecasted lower than last year in all major HRW producing States.
Favorable planting conditions and adequate moisture this spring in many of the Soft Red Winter (SRW) producing States has resulted in crop development slightly ahead of the 5-year average. On May 1, the percent of crop rated good to excellent in Illinois and North Carolina was 23 and 41 points above last year, respectively. Yields are forecasted to be higher than 2010 in most SRW producing States.
A cool, wet spring in the Pacific Northwest has led to concerns of disease and caused crop development to be slightly behind the 5-year average in Oregon and Washington. Yields are forecasted to be down from 2010 in Idaho and Washington, but up in Oregon.
Durum wheat: Production of Durum wheat in Arizona and California is forecast at a collective 23.2 million bushels, up 12 percent from the previous year. A cool spring in California caused crop development to be slightly behind normal. If realized, California's yield of 110.0 bushels per acre will tie last year's record high yield.
Hay stocks on farms: All hay stored on farms May 1, 2011 totaled 22.2 million tons, up 6 percent from a year ago. Disappearance from December 1, 2010-May 1, 2011 totaled 79.9 million tons, compared with 86.3 million tons for the same period a year ago.
Compared with last year, hay stocks increased across much of the Nation's midsection. In many cases, these increases are attributed to an increase in total hay production in 2010.
Stocks on hand were down throughout much of the western half of the United States and along the Atlantic Coast. Lingering winter weather conditions in many western States forced producers to feed livestock longer into the spring months. Drought conditions in many areas along the Atlantic Coast caused a lack of available winter pastures. Overall, the largest percentage declines occurred in California, Idaho, and Nevada.
2010 Cotton final: Upland cotton production is estimated at 17.6 million 480-pound bales, up 49 percent from the 2009 crop. The United States yield for Upland cotton is estimated at 805 pounds per acre, up 39 pounds from the previous season.
Upland growers in the Southeastern region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia) finished planting by mid-June. Hot, dry weather during much of the summer allowed the crop to develop ahead of normal. By the end of August, limited harvest was underway in Alabama and Georgia. By late-September, defoliation and harvest were underway throughout the region. Harvest neared completion by the end of November. Objective yield data in Georgia show bolls per acre to be the lowest in the last 7 years and boll weight to be at its lowest level since 1998. North Carolina boll weights
are at their lowest level since 2005.
In the Delta region (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee) producers finished planting by the first of June. The crop developed quickly due to hot, dry conditions for much of the summer. Defoliation and harvest had begun by late-August in the region. Harvest was completed by mid-November. In Louisiana, objective yield data show boll weight to be the lightest in over 10 years. Objective yield data in Arkansas show the bolls per acre to be the largest on record in Arkansas and the largest in the last 5 years in Mississippi.
Texas producers finished planting Upland cotton by the middle of June. In the Panhandle, warm temperatures and timely rains allowed the crop to develop well ahead of normal. Defoliation and limited harvest was underway by the middle of September. In South Texas, harvest was complete by mid-September. Harvest progressed rapidly in the Panhandle of Texas through the first half of October. However, harvest came to a halt after strong thunderstorms moved through some parts of the growing area. Reports from growers indicated some damage to the crop due to heavy rain, hail, and high winds. Objective yield data in Texas show boll weight to be the lowest since 2005.
In Kansas and Oklahoma, the Upland crop developed ahead of normal during the growing season. In Oklahoma, harvest got underway in late September, while Kansas producers began harvesting in October.
Upland producers in California and Arizona completed planting by mid-June. The Upland crop developed behind normal throughout the summer. In Arizona, harvest began during the first week of September. In California, harvest got underway in October.
American Pima production totaled 504,100 bales (480-pound), up 26 percent from the 2009 crop. The United States yield is estimated at 1,200 pounds per harvested acre, down 189 pounds per acre from the previous season.
Cottonseed: Cottonseed production in 2010 totaled 6.10 million tons, up 47 percent from last year. Sales to oil mills accounted for 53 percent of the disposition. The remaining 47 percent will be used for seed, feed, exports, and various other uses.