Soil Moisture Needs Increase Across Corn Belt

June 19, 2012 01:00 AM
 

Following are details from the state Crop/Weather Report:

Iowa: Rainfall amounts varied widely across the state this week, with most of the week’s heaviest precipitation occurring in the southern half of the state. Corn conditions improved slightly for the week. Conditions for all other crops declined during the week, with the largest decreases in the northern third of the state. There were 5.4 days suitable for fieldwork during the week, compared with 6.7 days the previous week. Southwest Iowa was the only area with less than four days suitable for fieldwork. Topsoil moisture levels improved to 14 percent very short, 40 percent short, 45 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. Subsoil moisture declined slightly and is now rated 18 percent very short, 43 percent short, 38 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. Corn has started to silk across much of the state with Southeast Iowa leading with 2 percent. Corn condition is reported at 2 percent very poor, 6 percent poor, 25 percent fair, 51 percent good, and 16 percent excellent. Ninety-eight percent of the soybean crop has emerged, almost one week ahead of normal. Soybeans have started to bloom in each district of the state. Soybean condition is rated 2 percent very poor, 9 percent poor, 28 percent fair, 50 percent good, and 11 percent excellent. Ninety-five percent of the oat crop has headed, 3 weeks ahead of normal.

Illinois: Much of the state finally saw some rain this week, but not enough to significantly alter crop conditions. Temperatures and precipitation were very close to normal across the state. Statewide temperatures averaged 72.7 degrees, 0.6 degrees above normal. Precipitation averaged 0.94 inches, 0.06 inches below the average for this time period. Topsoil moisture is rated at 24 percent very short, 46 percent short, 29 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. Even with the rain, many counties are reporting signs of stress in both corn and soybeans. Corn conditions were rated at 4 percent very poor, 9 percent poor, 35 percent fair, 45 percent good, and 7 percent excellent. Soybeans planted still stands at 99 percent with many farmers waiting on more moisture before they finish planting. Soybean emergence has reached 97 percent, well ahead of the 5-year average of 77 percent. Three percent of the soybean crop has started blooming, compared to 1 percent at this time last year. Soybean conditions were rated at 4 percent very poor, 10 percent poor, 39 percent fair, 43 percent good, and 4 percent excellent.

Nebraska: For the week ending June 17, 2012, above-normal temperatures coupled with little or no precipitation across northern and western areas continued to stress crops and pastures, according to USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service, Nebraska Field Office. However, rain across the southeastern quarter of the state brought some relief to that area. Wheat harvest continues in southeastern counties and has spread westward across the southern tier of counties. Irrigation was active. Crop development is ahead of normal, requiring more water to be applied at this time of year. Alfalfa and pastures were showing little growth in many areas. Temperatures averaged 2 degrees below normal in the Northeast and East Central Districts while other areas averaged 2 degrees above normal. Highs reached triple digits in portions of the west and mainly 90’s elsewhere. Lows were in the mid to upper 40’s. Significant amounts of rain fell in the South Central, East Central, and Southeast Districts with many areas receiving 1-3 inches. Little to no precipitation was recorded across the remaining areas of the state. Corn conditions rated 7 percent poor, 31 fair, 55 good, and 7 excellent, below last year’s 75 percent good to excellent and 78 average. Soybeans blooming were 4 percent. Soybean conditions rated 8 percent poor, 31 fair, 55 good, and 6 excellent, below last year’s 77 percent good to excellent and 78 average.

Missouri: Rainfall swept the state over the weekend, but crop condition continued to decline. Statewide there was 5.8 days suitable for fieldwork. Topsoil moisture improved but remains low at 39 percent very short, 43 percent short, 17 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. Subsoil moisture supply remained low at 35 percent very short, 41 percent short, and 24 percent adequate. Corn silked was 15 percent, 16 days ahead of last year, and 11 days ahead of normal (5-year average). Corn condition was 6 percent very poor, 15 percent poor, 39 percent fair, 36 percent good, and 4 percent excellent. Soybeans planted increased 4 points from last week to 97 percent, 18 days ahead of last year, and 21 days ahead of normal. Emergence was 85 percent, 8 days ahead of last year, and 17 days ahead of normal. Soybean blooming began. Soybean condition was 6 percent very poor, 23 percent poor, 42 percent fair, 26 percent good, and 3 percent excellent.

Ohio: The average temperature for the State was 70.8 degrees, 1.3 degrees above normal for the week ending Sunday, June 17, 2012. Precipitation averaged 0.26 inches, 0.73 inches below normal. There were 148 modified growing degree days, 12 days above normal. Reporters rated 6.6 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, June 15, 2012. Topsoil moisture was rated 31 percent very short, 46 percent short, 22 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. The state continued to experience warm and dry conditions. The heat is putting significant stress on livestock. The heat also hampered growth of corn, soybeans, and hay. Soybean emergence has been slow due to dry weather. Reporters commented that some areas have become too dry to replant soybeans or double crop soybeans. Insect infestation has been a problem in alfalfa fields. Field activities included side-dressing corn with nitrogen, spraying herbicides, and baling hay. As of Sunday June 17th, one percent of corn was silked. The soybean crop was two percent blooming.

Indiana: Hot, dry conditions persisted most of the week until scattered rain showers arrived over the weekend, according to the Indiana Field Office of USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. Enough rain fell in some areas to temporarily relieve drought stress to crops while other areas received none at all. Most farmers have completed nitrogen applications to their corn acreage at this time. Spider mites are beginning to appear in drought stressed soybean fields. Some operations were planting double crop soybeans after their wheat was harvested while others are waiting for rain before they begin. There were 6.7 days suitable for field work during the week. Two percent of the corn acreage has silked compared with 0 percent for both last year and the 5-year average. Corn condition fell again and is now rated 37 percent good to excellent compared with 55 percent last year at this time. Ninety-seven percent of the intended soybean acreage has emerged compared with 69 percent last year and 78 percent for the 5-year average. Four percent of the soybean acreage is blooming compared with 0 percent for both last year and the 5-year average. Soybean condition also fell further and is now rated 32 percent good to excellent compared with 56 percent last year at this time.

Minnesota: Topsoil moisture supplies improved over the previous week as widespread rains moved across the state, according to the USDA, NASS, Minnesota Field Office. Although the storm systems were strong with localized heavy rain that totaled over nine inches at one reporting station, statewide crop conditions remained relatively unchanged from the previous week. As of June 17, topsoil moisture supplies were rated 1 percent very short, 7 percent short, 75 percent adequate and 17 percent surplus. There were 4.5 days suitable for fieldwork during the week. Corn condition was rated 82 percent good to excellent, with an average height of 23 inches. Average soybean height was 6 inches and condition was rated 86 percent fair to good

South Dakota: With 6.0 days suitable for field work last week crop progress continues well ahead of average. Temperatures moderated from the previous week with near average temperatures covering the state, according to the State Climate Office of South Dakota. Precipitation was limited and below average for most of the state. Severe storms produced many hail reports and some crop damage in various areas of the state. Reports of drying conditions continue across the state. Precipitation was generally less than an inch statewide but very sporadic as is typical of mid-summer convection. A few stations had totals above an inch. Oelrichs had the largest total at 3.50 inches.  Most locations received much less than an inch. Sixteen stations reported less than 0.25 inches of precipitation for the week.  Roscoe and Spearfish had the lowest reports for the week at 0.03 inches. More than half the stations are below average for the growing season. This situation is made worse by the overall warm conditions throughout the spring and summer which removed more water from the surface by evaporation or transpiration through crops. Temperatures for the week averaged from the 60s F across the state except for a few stations in south central to southeast South Dakota. All stations were within a few degrees of average. The highest temperature was 98o F at Winner and Kennebec. The lowest reported was 37o F at Aberdeen and Hot Springs. Growing degree days range from near average in central parts of the state to 6-10 days ahead of average to the west and southeast. Topsoil moisture was rated at 50 percent in adequate to surplus, 44 percent short and 6 percent very short. Subsoil moisture was rated at 53 percent adequate to surplus, 38 percent short and 9 percent very short. Crop development continued ahead of normal, but conditions were starting to show signs of stress from lack of moisture. Corn had an average height of 18 inches, ahead of the five year average of 10 inches. Ninety-four percent of corn has been cultivated or sprayed once with 34 percent cultivated or sprayed twice. Soybeans were at 97 percent emerged, ahead of the five year average of 73 percent.


 

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